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Full text of "The Swallowtail butterflies of East Africa (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae)"

JOURNAL 
OF THE EAST AFRICAN NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 



Special Supplement No. 6 



DECEMBER 1960 



THE SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES OF EAST AFRICA 
(LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE) 

by 
R. H. Carcasson F. R. E. s. 

(Entomologist, Coryndon Museum, Nairobi) 




With illustrations 
by the author. 



PRICE Shs. 7/50 



HTDEX 



almansor - 


- 


— 


— 


29 


angolaoius - 


- 


— 


- 


27 


ansorgei - 


- 


- 


- 


12 


antheiis - 


- 


- 


- 


33 


antimachus 


— 


— 


— 


7 


atavua - 


- 


— 


— 


24 


Taromixis - 


- 


— 


— 


16 


hrontes - 


- 


— 


— 


16 


oharopus — 


- 


— 


- 


14 


chrapkowskii 


- 


— 


- 


16 


chrapkowskoides 


- 


- 


16 


colonna - 


— 


- 


— 


S2 


commixta - 


- 


- 


- 


8 


Congo anus - 


— 


- 


- 


11 


constsuitin.ua 


- 


- 


- 


11 


crippaianus 


- 


- 


- 


13 


orocea - 


- 


- 


- 


19 


cynorta - 


- 


- 


- 


21 


dsirdanus - 


- 


- 


- 


9 


demodocua - 


- 


— 


— 


20 


echerioidas 


— 


— 


— 


22 


flavioornis 


— 


- 


- 


10 


fulleborni 


— 


— 


- 


23 


Graphium - 


- 


- 


- 


25 


gudenuai - 


- 


- 


- 


31 


hesperus - 


- 


- 


- 


13 


kornimani - 


- 


- 


- 


14 


jacksoni - 


- 


- 


- 


23 


joiceyi 


- 


- 


- 


24 


juventus - 


- 


- 


- 


15 


kirbyi - 


- 


- 


- 


31 


latreillianui 


3 


- 


- 


28 


leonidas - 


- 


- 


- 


31 


leucotaenia 


— 


— 


- 


18 


lormieri - 


— 


- 


— 


19 


lyaeus - 


- 


- 


- 


18 


mackinnoni 


- 


- 


- 


14 


mech-owi - 


- 


- 


- 


20 


meseres - 


- 


- 


- 


10 


mimiticus - 


- 


- 


- 


8 


monticolus 


- 


- 


- 


11 


rawer uana - 


- 


— 


— 


11 



nireua - - 


— 


— 


18 


nobilia - - 


— 


— 


12 


nyikanvis - 


- 


- 


12 


ochracea - 


- 


— 


10 


opkidicepiialus 


- 


19 


Papilio - - 


- 


- 


4 


parvae - - 


- 


- 


7 


pelodorus - 


- 


- 


13 


philonoe - 


- 


- 


30 


phorcas - - 


- 


- 


11 


policenea - 


- 


- 


32 


poliatratua 


- 


— 


32 


polytrophua 


- 


- 


9 


porthAon 


- 


- 


33 


paeudonireus 


- 


- 


18 


pyladea - - 


- 


- 


27 


rex - - - 


— 


— 


8 


ridleyanua - 


- 


- 


27 


ruandana - 


- 


- 


23 


ruacoei - - 


— 


— 


12 


3chx)utedeni 


— 


- 


28 


sjUatedti - 


- 


- 


23 


sosia - - 


- 


- 


17 


taboranua - 


— 


— 


26 


theorini 


— 


- 


28 


thuraui - - 


- 


- 


15 


tibullus 


— 


— 


10 


ucalegon 


- 


- 


28 


ufipa - - 


- 


- 


16 


\iganda - - 


- 


- 


29 


vesper — - 


- 


— 


13 


whalleyi 


- 


- 


30 


whitnalli - 


- 


- 


21 


zenobia - - 


- 


- 


21 


zoroastrea - 


— 


— 


24 



ABBREVIATIOirS and SYMBOLS 
used in this work, 

ssp ■> subspecies tins - \2nderside 

fw - f orewing <J - male 

hw — hindwing 9 - female 

ups - upper side 



GLOSSARY 



Anal angle 

Anal vein 

Basal 

Cilia 

Diacal area 

Distal 

Pringe 

F^rona 

Int emer vular 

Palpi 

Proximal 

Subapical 

Submarginal 

SuMerminal 

Subspecies 
or race 



— Tornus, 



- Vein arising from base of wing, below 
disco idal cell. 

- Portion of wing nearest to the body. 

- Long hair-like scales at mstrgin of wings, 

- Area of the wings immediately outside 
the discoidal cells. 

- Away from the centre of the insect. 

- See Cilia. 

- Area in front of head, between the eyes. 

- Between two veins. 

- Short projections below the head, 
between which the tongue is coiled. 

- Towards the centre of the insect. 

- Just inside apex of wing. 

~ Just inside margin of wing. 

- See submarginal 

- Local population which differs constantly 
from others, but not enough to be a species. 



Terminal 



— Touching the margin. 



UTTEODUGTION 



The faunily Fapillonidae ( Swallowtails) is represented in East 
Africa by 43 species, just over half the number described from 
the Ethiopian Region. 

The Fapillonidae are f oiond throtaghout the world and the 
tropical areas of the Oriental Region and of South America are 
particularly rich in species. Only the typical subfamily 
Pap il ioninae , numbering some 450 species, including some of the 
largest and au>st beautiful butterflies in the world, is represented 
in Africa, 

The Pap il ioninae are easily recognised by the following 
characters: 

5^ont legs fully developed in both sezesj discoidal cell of both 
wings closed distallyj only one anal vein in hw; palpi very shor-^ 
frons very hairy. 

The Africain Swallowtails belong to two genera, Papilio and 
Sraphixim. There is a single species of the Oriental and ITeotropical 
genus Atrophaneura in Madatgascsir. 

The majority of the African Swallowtails are forest dwellers 
auid the largest number of species is to be found in the eq.tiatorial 
forest belt of the Congo and West Africa. Several endemic species 
occtir in Madagascar, in the Comoro islands and in MfturitioA. 



EARLY STAGES. 



Egg Smooth, nearly spherical, laid singly. 

Larva Smooth, with thoracic segments swollen. When alarmed 
the larvae extrude a brightly coloured Y shaped organ 
(osmeterium) which emits a repulsive odour. There are 
five changes of skin (instars). Most larvae of Papilio 
feed on plants of the family Rutaceae, whereas 
Graphium larvae feed on Anonaceae . 

CHRYSALIS Usually the chrysalis (pupa) has two projections in 
front and several lateral and dorsal projections. It 
is attached in an upright position by its anal 
extremity (Cremaster) and held in position by a thread 
of silk, round the middle. 



In this paper all the speciea known to occur in KenyayUganda 
auid Tanganyika have heen illustrated and dealt with in the text. 

African species not recorded from East Africa are mentioned 
in their proper taxonomic seq,uence ani. their distribution is 
given, thus enabling the reader to understand the relationship 
between the East African Papilionid fatma and that of the rest of 
Africa, 





Venation of PAPILIO Venation of GRAPHIUM 

Family PAPILIOHIDAE 
Subfamily PAPILIOiriirAE 

Key to East African genera. 

11 veins in fw. GRAPHIIIM Scopoli 

12 veins in f« PAPILIO Linnaeus 



4 

K«y to th« East African species of Paplllo> 

- Ht without tail at v«in 4 ....• 22-63 

- Hw tailed at Tein 4{ tail always more or less lohed, never 
straight and narrow ••.•••••.•..•..»••»•••...•.••.••••..• 1-21 

1 Qroimd colour yellow •••••.••••.•••.•••••...•••«••••.. 5-6 

2 Ground colour black with pale yellow cur white taarkings 7-19 

5 Ground colotir hlacky with markings green. ••»•••• •••.•• 

• •••.••.••.•••.•»»••••..•.••,•••••»..• (6) phorcas S o 

4 Qroimd colovir black, light markings metallic blue .... 20~21 

5 Dark markings black •.......•...•. (4) dardanus ^ 

6 Bark markings rusty brown or absent (7) nobilis S 

7 ITo light markings in cell of hw. « (ll) mackinnoni $ o 

8 Light markings invade cell of hw .•••••..•».••..••...• 11-17 

9 Orange and blue eye spots present <xci hw ••.•..••••.••• I8— 19 

10 Orange euid blue eye spots absent on hw ••...•...•..•.. 12—17 

11 Fskle band straight and continuoua; no submarginal or 
discal spots above •.• (26) leucotaenia S g 

12 SulMarginal light spots present in both wings above. •• 14-15 

IS Light discal spots in hw only 16^17 

14 Large yellow spot in fw cell above. (5) constantinus S q 



13 Fo light areas in cell of fw above. ••••........ ....... 

..................... (6) phorcas f » thersander o 

16 Pale disoal spots in areas 2 and 5 of hw abova absent. 
...•.......•.•..»••......•..••>»»•••• {8} hesperus ^o 

17 Pale discal apots in areas 2 and 5 of hw present .... 
•.••...••.•...........••»....•»••• (9) pelodorus 8 o 



18 A large, bold yellow spot in cell of fw above ....... 

........................... (29) opb.idioepb.al us 00 

19 Ko sucb spot J at most a faint, ill defined streak .. 
(28) lormieri 00 



20 Blue band reaches bw margin in area lb ............ 

............................... (14} obaropus $2 

21 Blue band does not reach, hw margin in area lb ..... 
........•....••..••....•••...•. (13) homimami ^9 

22 Abdomen very long, reaching level of anal angle 

of hw . (1) antimaehue So 

23 Abdomen does not reach level of anal angle of hw. ., 24^3 

24 Blue and red eye spots present on hw... ............ 

..•••*..•.••••........•••.... (33) demodocxis 00 

23 Blue and red eye spots on hw absent ............... 26~63 

26 Grotmd colour black, light areas- blue ..••..••..... 53-63 

27 Light areas whits, yellow or orange .......».•....• 28->52 

28 17o brown or orange basal area on hw below ......... 

.•••..•......••.......••..».. (4) dardanuB p 

29 Basal portion of costa on hw below oremgej base of 
cell white (3) rex (J* o 

30 Basal ar»a of hw below, including cell, b2^o«n or 

orange brown ......•......•........•.•••••......*. 31-52 

31 Continuous thick black streak in area 7 of i>-w below, 
from base to distal edge of dark basal area ...... 

................................. (35} aechowi 69 

32 A thin black streak in area 7 occupies distal half 
of dark basal area only; sometimes accompanied by 

a small black dot near base. . (46) sjostedtl ^ q 

33 2 heavy black spots in bas« of area 7 of hw below, 

the distal spot more or less elongated............ 34^5^ 



34 No faint dark streaks in distal half of cell on hv below.. 
» ...(37) aenobia cT 9 

35 2 or 3 faint dark streaks on distal half of cell on hw 
below, 36-52 

36 White apots on hw above absent or reduced to 
internervular fringea,,.,,.,,,.^,, ,..,...,,,,,.... 39-42 

37 White apots on hw above touch, or neairly touch margin,, 43r-44 

38 White apots on hw above well inside margin.,,,..., 45-52 



39 ^ prominent pale preapical bar on f w above. ............ 

(41) cynorta 9 

40 Ha auch bar. ,,., 41-42 

41 Pale median band 12-15 ida. wide at inner margin of tw 
above. (41) <^r»o3?ta d 

42 Pale median band 5-7 nm* wide at inner margin of fw 
above.. ........ ................. (45} fulleborni d 



43 Pale areas arranged in a straight median band....... 

(43) echerioidea d 



44 Pala areas not arranged in a atraight median band...... 

(45) fulleborni 9 

45 Pale areas arranged on a atraight median band. ......... 47-4^ 

4S Pskle areas not arranged in a atraight median band 49-52 

47 Pale atreaa pure white; U3\iall7 a white spot in fw 
cell above and aoi extra white streak at base of area 
6 in fw...... (47) ggroastrea d 

48 Pale areas somewhat creamy; no white spot in oell,no 
extra spot at base of area 6...., (44) jacksoni d 

49 White apical spot touches fw margin,,,,....,..,........ 51-52 



50 White apical apot doea not touch fw margin 

(44) jacksoni 9 



51 ])iatal half of hw above uniformly black. 

(43) echerioidea 9 



52 Distal half of hw above mainly dark brown, black near 
costa only • (47) zoroaatres 9 

53 Blue median band always present in both, winga above., , 55-^3 

34 Blue median band absent; complete series of blue 

submsirginal spots in both, wings..,. (20) thuraui S 9 

55 Median band greenish, blue.... . .....4.. ........•• 57-60 

56 Median band pure blue, without green tinge, never less 

than 8 mm. wide in area lb of f w. 61-^3 

57 No submarginal white spots in fw below..,,....,,,...,. 59-6O 

58 White submarginal apots always present, sometimes 
faint,,,.,,,,,.. .,., (19) bromiua bromius d ^ 

59 Median band irregulaLr, never wider than 6 mm. in lb 
of fw, nearly always much lesa,.,,, (23) nireua 6 9 

60 Mediam band straight and regular, never less thsm 7 nmi, 
in lb of fw, nearly always much wider, (22) sosia 6 9 



61 Hw below very dark brown, without paler mottling,..,,.. 
,,,,, ,,,..,,,,,.,..(18) brontea <5 

62 Hw below mottled .,(19) bromiua chrapkowskii 6 9 

63 The females of brontea and chrapkowskii differ from 
the malea in being very much paler below, without 
the characteriatic chain of ailvery spota on the hw; 
they are practically indiatinguiahable, but no confusion 
is possible because they never occur together, 

1 PAPILIO AIITIMA.CHUS Drury (Pl.l,fig.l) 
Drury (lll,Eiot.Ins,3,p.l) 1782, 

RANGE Heavy forest from Sierra Leone to the Congo amd W.Uganda, 

Ssp, atntimachua Drury 
SAKQE West Africa. 

Ssp, parva Jackaon(j.E,Afr,IIat,Hist,Soc.98,p,72) 

1956. 
DBSCailPTION A very large butterfly with long narrow wings, Orange 
brown with black markings, resembling a gigaaatic 



8 

Acraea. Aver age length, of fw 95 """i* 3Ji parva, 107 in 

antiraackua, which, is the laargest African butterfly and 

indeed, one of the largest in the world, 
RANGE Forests of W.Uganda and probably E. Congo; rare, female 

very rare. 
RECORDS Uganda ; Kalinzu (Ankole) jKayonsaa (Kigeai) ,Bwamba (Toro), 

Kibale forest (Toro), 

2 PAPILIO ZALMOXIS Hewitson (Siot.Batt.Pap.t. 6)1864 - 
RANGE Nigeria to the Congo, 

S PAPILIO REX 0berthur(Pl,l,fig.2} 

Oberthur (Bull.E,Rr.(&) 6,p.ll4j 1886- 

RANGE Highland forests of East Aftioa, Ethiopia, S, Congo, S.Sudan 
and Cameroons. 

Ssp, rex Oberthur 
DESCRIPTION A large species which mimics Melinda formosa formosa 
Godn, particularly in the ^, Black, with numerous white 
markings; base of f« orange brown, sometimes black with a 
white streaik in o ; g haa the orange brown area always 
present and larger-, f .rex Ob. was described from Kilimanjaro 
and haa orange brown base to fw; f . regulus Le Cerf (19I9) 
from Kenya, has an oehreous base to fw and was originally 
described as a ssp. However, as both the KilimanjaLTo and 
Kenya populations show great variability in the colour of 
the base of the fw, they must be regarded as members of a 
single aap. 
RANGE Highland forest in Kenya East of the Rift and in N.Tanganyika 
RECORDS Kenya ; Nairobi, Thomson's Palls, Nyeri, Meru,Kifcuyu 
Escarpment • Tanganyika ; Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru. 

Ssp. mimeticus Rothachild (Entomolog.30,p.lS5) 1897 
DESCRIPTION White markings smaller than above; basal area of fw 

dark red brown. Mimics M.formosa mercedonia Karsch, 
RANGE Ifeanda, E. Congo. 
RECORDS Uganda ; Kampala, Jinja, Port Portal, Mulange, Kibale 

forest (Toro), Buaia. 

Ssp. commixta Aurivillius(Seita Macrolep.l3,p.i2) I9O8 . 
DESCRIPTION Similar to above, but basal area of fw paler, 
RANGE Highlands of western Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Kakamega, Kaimosi, Kitale, Elgon, Cherangani. 



(4) PAPILIO DASDAimS Brown (P1.2,f iga. 1,2, 3,4,5. ) 
Brovm (lll,Zool.p,52) 1776. 

RMGE Forested areas throughout the Ethiopian Eegion, Females 
of the Abyssinian, Comoro and Madagascar races 
(antinorii Ob. , humhloti Oh. and meriones Feld.) are tailed 
and similar to the males; elsewhere the females are tail- 
less, usually mimetic and incredibly variable. 

Ssp. dardanus Brown. 

DESCRIPTIOF 3 large, tailed, pale yellow with black border to 
fw and black markings in discal and submarginal area of 
hw. Tail yellow with dark streak along vein 4. ^ always 
tail-less; the principal ^ forms are: 
f . kippocoon Fab. : black and white, imitates Amauris 
niavius niavius L. , by far th.e commonest form, 
f. acenides Le Cerf : has a black fw with white markings 
and a pale ochreous hw with black border ajid white 
submarginal spots. It is a generalised mimic of several 
species of Amatiris of the echeria group ; it may be 
separated from the ^ o of the echerioides group by the 
absence of th.e sharply truncated chestnut basal area on 
the hw below. 

f. trophonissa Aurivillius: mainly bright orange with 
black markings and a white subapical bar; imitates 
P.chrysippus f . chryaippua L. 

f. niobe Attr. t as above, but all light markings bright 
orange. 

f . plstnemoides (Crimen; fw mainly bright orange, hw white 
with a black border. Imitates several species of 
Bematistes . 

BANGE W. Africa and Angola to the Congo, Uganda and Kenya west 
of the Rift Valley; occurs in all forested areas. 
xantkocaudatua Stoneham. ,from the Trans-lTzoia must be 
regarded as a d^ form of this race. 

Ssp. polytrophus Rothschild & Jordem (Fov«Zool.lO,p.488) 

1903. 
DESCHIPTIOF ^smaller than above; amount of black on hw variable^ 
but usually more than in dardanua. Tail lacka dark central 
streak, but usually has dark, edges v nairobian^ts Stoneham 
must be treated as a tiT form of this racej polytropua is 
intemediate between dardanus and tibullus Kirby. 
^ f , hippocoonoides Haase corresponds with hippocoon Fab. 
o f . cenea Stoll corresponds with acenides Le Cerf. 
o f , lamborni Povilton is similar to trophonissa Aur. , 



10 

but has a pale yellow subapical bar and some yellow in 

the fw oell. 

^ f. salaiami Suffert: All light areas orange} corresponds 

with niobe Aurivillius. 

^ f . trimeni Po^^lton is similar to hippocoonoides Haas« 

but has all light areas pale yellow. 

Sap» polytrophxia haa a greater variety of q forms than 

any other race and many of them are imperfect mimics. 
RANGE Highland forest in central Kenya, 
HE COEDS Kenya Uairobi, Uyeri, Fanyuki, Kikuyu eacarpment, 

Aberdaree, Qil Gil, Thomson*a Palls. 

Sap. tibmllus. Kirby (Proc.H.Publin Soc.(2),2,p.338)l880. 
DESCRIPTION All dark markings very well developed in dT.A broad, 

entire black discal band in hw. o o as above, but not so 

variable; imperfect mimics, rare. 
RANGE Coastal district from Kenya to Delagoa Bayj inland to 

Ukamba, Kilimanjaro, Southern Highlands of Tanganyika, 

Nyasaland auad S. Rhodesia. 

Sap. flavicomis Carpenter (Proc.H.Ent.Soc.(B)l6(5~6)p.55) 

1947. 

DESCRIPTION Differs from all other races in having yellowish 

brown antennae in both sexes. 6* larger than two proceeding 
races, with very prominent terminaJL yellow lunules on fw. 
The commonest g form resembles cenea StolL, but has all 
light maarkings deep ochreous yellow and mimics Amauris 
echeria septentrionis Poulton. 

RANGE Mt.Kulal, south east of Lake Svidolf. 

Ssp, ochracea Poiilton (Proc,R.Ent,Soc.27-28) 1924. 
DESCRIPTION cf very similar to above, but has black antennae? 

^ variable; the dominant- form ( ochracea Poulton) has stll 

T^ale areas deep ochreous yellow and imitates Amauris 

echeria septentrionis Poulton, 
RANGE Mt.Marsabit, in the Northern Frontier District of Kenya. 

Ssp. meseres Carpenter (?roc.R.Bnt.Soc.(B)l7(l-2)p.ll) 

1948. 

DESCRIPTION A variable race, intermediate between dardanus and 
polytrophus, but has the same genitalial characters as 
polytrophtis and the other Eastern races (presence of a 
strong spine on inner side of valve), S very variable. 

RANGE Southern and eastern shores of Lake Victoria. 

RECORDS Kenya; Suna (Kisii), Masai Reserve, Mara River, 

Tsmgainyika ; Mwaya, Mwanza, Bukoba, ITkerewe Island. 



11 

NOTE Only a few of the most important g forms of dardanus are 
mentioned above. Over 40 forms have been described, many 
of which are trivial modifications of the basic forms. 



(5) PAPILIO COFSTANTimJS Ward (P1.5,fig,3) 
Wai-d (Snt.M.Mag.8,p,34) I871. 

RANGE Dry woodland amd riverine forest from Natal and the 

Transvaal to Mozambique, Fyasaland, Rhodesia, Katanga, 
Tanganyika, Kenya and Ethiopia, 

Ssp. const ant inus Ward, 
DESCRIPTION Dark brown with pale yellow markings 5 orange and blue 

eye spots of hw absent; sexes alike. 
RANGE The specific range, excluding Katanga, N. Rhodesia and 

inland areas of Kenya. In East Africa it occurs below 

4000 ft,, in the eastern districts of Kenya and Tanganyika. 
RECORDS Kenya : Mtwapa Creek, Masongaleni, Kibwezi, Voi, Kilifi, 

Shimba Hills, Diani, Moyale. Tanganyika t Moshi,Morogoro. 

Ssp, monticolus Le Cerf (Bull. Hill Mus.I,3,p.387) 1924. 
DESCRIPTION Smaller than the nominate race, j'-ellow markings 

broader. 
RANGE High country in central Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Kikuyu Escarpment, Nairobi, Kedong River. 

Ssp. mweruana Joicey & Talbot (Enc.Ent,B3,Lep.2,p.l)l926. 
DESCRIPTION As large as the nominate race, but yellow maarkings 

broader. 
RANGE Katanga and Rhodesia. No definite records of this race aire 

available from East Africa, but its occurence in 

S.W. Tanganyika is probable. 

(6) PAPILIO PHORCAS Cramer (P1.3,f igs.2,3.) 
Cramer (Pap.Bxot.I,p.4) 1775. 

RANGE Forested areas throughout Africa, excluding Ethiopia and 
Africa south of the Zambesi, 

Ssp. phorcas Cramer. 
RANGE Sierra Leone to Nigeria. 

Ssp. Congo anus Rothschild (Nov.Zool.3fP.325) I896. 
DESCRIPTION c? black with bright green discal band. A green spot 

always present in area 5 of ^wj There are two forms of the 
o 5 the typical one is like the d* , the other is dark 



12 

brown with, a yellow discal band and a complete series of 
yellow submarginal spots (f .thersander J^bricius.) 

RMGE Camsroons to Congo and Ugsuida. 

RECORDS Ugeindai Bwamba (Toro), Kibale Forest (Toro), Mubende, 
KalinzEU, £ampaLla, Entebbe ^ Sango Bay, Kayonza, Jinja. 

Ssp, ruscoei Bryk & Kruger(Zool.Aua,Leipzig, 74, p. 77)1927. 

DESCRIPTION Somewbat smaller than preceeding race; green bamd 

narrower. This, race is trauasitional between Congo anus and 
ansorgei Roths, and is of doubtful validity. 

RANGE West Kenya, E, Uganda. 

RECORDS Kenya ; Kakamega, !Piriki, Kaimosi, Kitale, Elgon,Cherangani, 
Kericho, Sotik. 

NOTE F.namdina Rothschild I90I is an aberration of thia rac« 

in which the light area is paile yellow and the discal band 
is joined to a large yellow qpot in the cell of the fw. 

Sap. ansorgei Rothschild (Nov.Zool.i,p.324) I898. 
DESCRIPTION As above, but no green sp6t in area 5 of fw.There is 

a common aberration in which the light atrea la very pale» 

sometimes nearly white, o f . t her sandro ides Aurivilliua 

corresponds with thersander Fabricius. 
RANGE Very conanon in all the highland forests in central Kenya j 

does not occur at the coast, or at Marsabit. 

Ssp. nyikanus Rothschild & Jordan (Nov.Zool.lQ,p,489) 

1903. 
DESCRIPTION Larger than above j green spot in strea 5 visually 

present jgreen spots in 6 and 7 of fw smaller thaji in other 

races. Light areas often have a strong bluish tinge; 

suboiarginal spots better developed than in other races. 
RANGE Highland forest in Tanganyika auid Nyasaland. 
RECORDS Tanganyika ; Lushoto, Amani, Mt.Ueru,^ Kondoa, Babaga, 

Mt.Rvtngwe (Mbeya). 
NOTE Casphor Suffert (iris 17jP.97,1904) is an aberration 

from Tabora. 

(7) PAPILIO NOBILIS Rogenhofer (P1.3,fig-lj. 

Rogenhofer (Verh.s.b.Ges.Wien 41»p.5S3j I891. 

RANGE Pbre»ts up to 8OOO ft. in Kenya, N.Tanganyika, Ugamda, 
S.Sudan, E.Congo, Rxiaoda Urundi. 

Ssp. nobilia Rogenhofer. 
DESCRIPTION Deep ochre yellow with reddish brown markings; o mora 

heavily marked than <?. 
RANGE Highland forest in Kenya and N.Tangamyika. 



13 

RECORDS Kenya ; Trans-Nzoia, Thonason's Palla, ITyeri, Nanyuki, 

Aberdares, Nairobi (common), Kikioyu Escatrpoent, Uplands, 
KatamayojKakamega. Apparently not at Marsabit and absent 
at the coast. 

Ssp, crippaiaaiia Stoneham (Bull.Stoneham Mu3.27) 1936. 

DESCRIPTIOir All broim markings with the exception of costal spot 
in hw, dull whitish; ^ similar to that of the nominate 
race. 

RANGE W.Uganda and Kivu. 

RECORDS Uganda ; Mitano Gorge, Kalinzu forest, Port Portal. 

NOTE There i» a <? in the Coryndon Museum collection from the 
Mabira forest ( Jinja,Uganda) , which has a very pale 
ground colour, but very dark markings and approaches the 
form leroyi Berger, described from Kivu. 

(8) PAPILIO HESPERUS Westwood (Pl.Sjfig.'S). 
Westwood (Arc.Ent.l,p.l89) 1843. 

RANGE Heavy forest from Sierra Leone to the Congo, Uganda and 
S.Sudan in the north, and from Angola to Katanga and 
N.Rhodesia in the south. 

Sap. hesperus ¥estwood. 
DESCRIPTION Black with pale yellow markings; ^ larger and paler 

with an orange spot at tornus of hw. 
RANGE The specific range, excluding Sierra Leone and thn 

S.Sudsui. 
RECORDS Uganda t Jinja, Kai3^ala,Entebbe,Mubende,Kayonza, Kalinzu, 

Sango Bay, Budongo. 

Tanganyika tBukoba. 

(9) PAPILIO PELODORUS Butler (Pl.g,fig.1i). 
Butler (Proc.Zool.So.Lond. l895,p.T20). 

RANGE Highland for eat in Nyasalsmd, southern and eastern 
Tamganyika. 



RANGE 



Sap. pelodorua Butler. 
Nyas aland. 



Ssp. vesper Le Cerf (Btill.Kill Mua.l,3,p.383) 1924. 
DESCRIPTION Very aimilar to P.heaperua ffeatw., but haa an extra 
yellow spot in area 2 and auaother in area 5 of hw and one 
or two orange dots at the torntia in both sexes. 



14 

RANGE Highland forest in eastern and southern Tanganyika, 
RECORDS Tanganyika ;Lushoto, Amani, Mufindi. 

(10) PAPILIO EUPHRANOR Trimen (Trans. Ent. So c.Lond. 1868, p. 70), 
RANGE South Africa. 



(11) PAPILIO MACKIMONI E.Sharpe (P1.3,fig.4) 
E.Sharpe (Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. l891,p.l87). 

RANGE Highland forest in East Africa, Ruanda Ilrundi, E.Congo, 
Katanga, N.Rhodesia and Angola. 

Sap. mackinnoni E.Sharpe, 

DESCRIPTION "S very dau:k brown, nearly black with a continuous 

series of large yellow spots from apex of fw to area 2 of 
hw. 1^ Istpger, paler, without row of pale gold spots on hw 
below, 

RANGE Highlands of Kenya, Uganda, Ruanda Urundi, E.Congo and north- 
west Tanganyika. 

RECORDS Kenya ; Kitale,Nyeri,Elgon,Tir'iki,Uplands,Meru,Mt, Kenya, 

Nairobi, Gil Gil, Thomson's Palls,R\unuruti,Kakaniega,Subukia, 

Kericho. 

Uganda i Port Portal,Kayonza. 

(12) PAPILIO DELALANDEI Godart (Mem.Soc.Linn.Paris 2) 1823. 
RANGE Madagascar. 

(13) PAPILIO HORNIMANI Distant (P1.4,fig.3). 
Distant (Proc.Zool.SocLond. l879,p.647). 

DESCRIPTION Black with metallic blue discal band and submarginal 
spots. ^ lacks chain of silvery spots on hw below, 

RANGE Highland forest in E.Kenya and N.Tanganyika. 

RECORDS Kenya ; Chyulu Hills. 

Tanganyika ; Amani (Usambara),Lushoto,Tengeru (Arusha) , 
Mt.Meru, 



(14) PAPILIO CHAROPUS Westwood (Pl,4,fig.6) 
Westwood (Arc.Ent,l,p,l89) l843. 

RANGE Forests in West Africa,E, Congo, Ruanda Urundi ajid W, Uganda, 



RANGE 



15 

Sap, charopua Westv/ood. 
Gbazxa and Cameroona. 



Ssp, juventvta Le Cerf (Biill.Hill Mus.l,5,p, 385)1924. 
DESCEIPTIOIT Similar to above, but smaller and lacks series o-^ 

silvery spots in hw below in both sexes; blue band bvoader. 
RANGE North-east Congo and W.Uganda. 
RECORDS Uganda : Kayonza,Kibale forest, F'ort Portal. 

(15) PAPILIO MANGOURA Hewitson (Ent, M.Mag. 11, p. 226) I875. 
RANGE Madagascar. 

(16) PAPILIO ORIBJ^ZUS Boisduval (Spec. Gen.Lep.l,?. 233) I836. 
RANGE Madagascar. 

(17) PAPILIO EPIPHORBAS Boisduval (Paune Madag.p.l3) 1833. 
RANGE Madagascar . 

(18) PAPILIO AETHIOPS Rothschild & Jordan(Nov.Zool.l2,p.l90). 

1905. 
RANGE Ethiopia. 



(19) PAPILIO THURAUI Karsch (Pl.l,fig.3) 
Karsch (Ent.Nachr.26,p.l26) 1900. 

DESCRIPTION Tail-less; median band completely absent jsubmarginal 
blue spots IsLTge and fully developed in both wings. Sezes 
alike. Genitalia as in P.bromius Dbl. and very closely 
allied to that species, despite strong superficial 
differences. 

RANGE Highland forest in S, Tanganyika. 

RECORDS Tanganyika ; Mufindi,Njombe,Poroto Mts. (Mbeya) . 



16 

(20) PAPILIO HROMIUS Doubleday (P1.4,fig.4) 
Doubleday (Aim.Mag.IT.H.(l6),p,176) I845. 

RA¥QE Forests from Sierra Leone to Angola, the Congo and East 
Africa, vitb. a distinct isolated race in IFyasaland 
(asp, cyolopia R»&. J. ) 

Sap. "bromitia Doubleday 
D£SCBIFTIOir Black with a broad median blue band} small blue 

submarginal spots on fvr usually present, white submarginal 

spots on fw below absent, or reduced to traces. 9 pal«r 

and duller. 
SAITGE West Africa and parts of the Congo. 
RECORBS Uganda t Bwamba Talley (Toro). 
NOTE Occasional specimens approaching this race, but somewhat 

smaller, occur elseidiera in Uganda aoid at Kakamega. 

Sep. chrapkowakii Suffert (iris 1T»P.98) 1904. 
SESCRIFTIOF ^nailer than above, blue band nasrrower. Submarginal 

spots on fw below well developed. Hw below strongly mottled 

with silky purplish brown, 
RAJGE Kenya Highlands. Very common in most forest areas above 

5000 ft. ,but appsLTently abaent at Marsabit, the Chyulu 

and Teita Hills. 

Ssp. chrapkowskoides Storace (Lamb. 52, p. 9) 1952. 

DESCRIPTIOIT Tery similar to above, but pale mottling and 

submarginal spots below not so well developed. Cilia of 
fw black, not white, as in chr apkowskii . A somewhat 
unstable race with freq.uent transitions to the two previous 
races. 

HAJfGE Very oomnon throxighout Uganda, Ruanda Urundi, 
U.W.Tanganyika and the JJ'.E. Conge. 

Ssp. t>f ipa Carcasson (Coryndon Mua.Occ.Pap.T) 
DESCRIPTIOW Median band narrower, straight er and bluer than in 
other East Africsua races. Submarginal spots below very 
large, paler mottling absent. Very similar to P. brontes 
and cskn only be determined with certainty by dissection. 
RANGE Ufipa plateau, S.W.Tanganyika. 
ITOTE See P. brontes, Notes 1 .fc 2. 

(21) PAPILIO BRONTES Godman ( PI. 4, fig. 5) 
Godman (Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. l885,p.540). 

DESCRIPTION Very similar to chr apkowskii, but median band bluer, 

submarginal spots of fw below large amd very white,pvirpli8h 



17 

mottlings on hw below absent. 

Form desmondi vain Someren, described from the Chyiilu Hills, 
has sharp nerviilatr indentations at the margin of the blue 
band in the fw, 

RAUGE Highland forest in Wyaaalauad, Tanganyika and E.Kenya. 

RECORDS Kenya ; Chyulu Hills, Teita Hilla, 

Tangamyika : Amani, Lushoto, Mt.Meru, Dabaga- liufindi, 
Poroto Mta. (Mbeya), ITjombe, Mt.Riingwe(Mbeya), Tengeru 
(AruGLha), Ulttgixru Mts. 

NOTE I There ia a very distinct race of brontes in the Teita Hills 
(S.E.Kenya) in «hich the blue band is much broader at the 
inner margin of the fw, but narrower at the cell. This amd 
otker forms of this species will be discussed in a forth- 
coming paper on the br omiua-br onte s complex by Dr.V.G.L. 
van Someren. 

NOTE II Although P. brontes is very similar to some forms of 

P.bromiua and has been confused with that species, it has 
consistently different genitalia and must be treated as a 
good species. 



(22) PAPILIO SOSIA Rothschild & Jordan (Pl,4,fig.2) 
Rothschild & Jordan (Fov.Zool.lO,p.488) 1903. 

RANGE Forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo and Uganda. 

Sap. soaia Rothschild & Jordan. 
RANGE West Africa, 



Ssp. debilis Storace (Lambillionea LI ( 1951 ) ,n. 5-8, pp. 47-48 ) . 

DESCRIPTION Similar to typical P.bromius, but somewhat smaller} 
blue band narrower and much greener, of even width and 
with straight parallel edges. A complete series of small 
blue submarginal dots on fw above, Uns very dark, without 
subtnarginal spots on fw, but with a series of small white 
marginal dots. The 6 can always be aepairated from that of 
P. nirexis L, by the shape of the valve, which is rounded 
in aosia, but triangular, with a sharp apex in nireua. 
Th±s character can be observed with the naked eye. The ^ 
can only be separated with certainty from that of nireus 
by dissecting the genitalia. 

RANGE Uganda. 

RECORDS Tororo, Jinja, Busia, Biramba. 



18 

(23) PAPILIO iriREUS Linnaeua (P1.4.fig.l) 
Linnaeus CSyat.l!rat.Ed.lO,p.464; 1758. 

BANGS Very common throxighout the Ethiopian Region, with a 
distinct race in the Comoro islands (aristophontes 
Oherthur), 

Sap. nireus^ Linnaeus. 
DESCHIPTIOIT Similar to sosia ; median hand greenish, as in aosia, 
'hut narrower and more irregular, Suhmarginal hlue spots 

in fw usually ahsent, cilia of fw black, uns as in sosia. 

g paler and duller, without row of silvery spots on hw 

below. 
RANGE West Africa and the Congo. 
RECORDS Uganda t Bwamba Talley (Toro). 

Ssp. lyaeus Doubleday (Ann.Mag,N,H.(l6),p.l78) 1845. 
DESCRIPTION Similar to above, but smaller, blue band narrower, 

cilia of fw white. In f o3?ms dimidiatvts Le Cerf and 

P8e\idonireoides Storace the mediam. band is even more 

reduced. 
RANGE nbiq,uitotis in eastern and southern Africa. 

Ssp. pseudonireus Pelder (Reise Hovar,L©p.p.94) l8^5» 
DESCRIPTION Smaller than above j median band extremely reduced, 

often not reaching fw cell. Suhmarginal blue dots of fw 

visually present. 
RANGE EthiopiajSomaliayS.SUdanyN.Karamoja and Northern Frontier 

District of Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya : Moyale. 

(24) PAPILIO PHOEBAHTA Linnaeua (Ma2it.Plant.p.525) 1771. 
RANGE Bo\irbon and Seychelle islands. 

(25) PAPILIO MANLIUS Pabricius (Eat.Syst.Suppl.,p.422) 1798. 
RANGE Uauritiua. 



(26) PAPILIO LBOCOTAENIA Rothschild (P1.3,fig.5) 
Rothschild (Ent.H.Mag.44>p.249) 1908. 

DESCRIPTION Tery dark sooty grey, nearly black with a broad 

greenish white median band. ^ paler^ with broader median 
band. Uns intricately variegated in various shades of 
brown, grey and black. 



19 



HANGE Montane forest in Ruanda Urundi and Kigezi; rare, 
RECORDS Uganda: Mafuga forest (Kigezi). 



(27) PAPILIO MENESTHEUS Drury (lll.Eiot.Ins.2,p.l5) 1773. 
RABTGE West Africa. 



(28) PAPILIO LORMTERI Distant (P1.5,fig.l) 
Distant (Bnt.M.Mag.ii,p.l29) l874. 

RANGE Forests from the Cameroons to Angola, the Congo and East 
Africa. 

Sap. lormieri Distamt, 
RANGE West Africa and the Congo, 

Ssp. crocea Storace (Mem. Soc.Ent.Ital,33>p.l32) 1955» 

DESCRIPTION A very large tailed species. Blackish with narrow pale 
yellow median band and subraarginal spots; an orange and 
blue eye spot at tornus of hw and another at costa, Hw 
below beautifully marked with blue and orange. Sexes alike. 

RANGE Uganda and W.Kenya, 

RECORDS Uganda ; All forests below 6000 ft. 
Kenya ; Kakamega, Kaimosi, Tiriki. 

NOTE Semlikana Le Cerf (Bull, Hill Mus,I,3,p.388,1924) , 

originally described as a ssp, from the Semliki valley, 
has a very narrow median band, particularly in the hw. 
According to Berger ( Ann, Mus, Congo Beige 3»I P»39»1950)it 
is only a varietal from. Semi ikana appears to be the 
dominant form in the Kalinzu forest (Ankole), 

(29) PAPILIO OPHIDICEPHALUS Oberthur (Pl,5,fig,2) 
Oberthur (Et,d'Ent. 3,p.l3) l878, 

RANGE Forests from Kenya to South Africa, 

Ssp, ophidicephalus Oberthur, 
DESCRIPTION Very similar to above, but pale band much broader} 

sexes alike. 
RANGE E.Kenya, eastern and southern Tanganyika and N,Mozambi<iue. 
RECORDS Kenya :Meru, Donyo Sabuk,Kibwezi and all coastal forests. 

Tanganyika ;Amani, Morogoro,Abercorn (N.Rhodeaia,) Lake 

Rukwa, coastal forests. 



20 

(30) PAPILIO GHOS&-SMITHI Rothschild(Ann.Mag.N.H.C9)l7,p-lli) 

1926. 
RANGE Madagascar. 

(31) PAPILIO MORONDAVAHA Grose-Smitii (Ann.Mag.N.H.(6)7,p.78) 

1891. 
RANGE Uadagasc£Lr. 

(32) PAPILIO ERITHONIOIDES Groae-SiBith.(Ann.Mag.ir.H. (6)p.l22) 

1891. 
RANGE Madagascar. 

(33) PAPILIO DEMODOCUS Esper (P1.5,fig.4) 
Eaper (Aust.Scbmett.yp.205) I798. 

RANGE 7ery common throughout th.e Ethiopian Rftgion, including 

Madagascar. Prefers open countpj and cultivation to for-eat. 

Ssp. demodogua Esper. 
DESCRIPTION Large, tail -less, pals yellov, mottled and marked 

with, black; hw. decorated with a large hluish eye spot at 

the costa and a hlue and red eye spot at the tomua. 

Sexes alike. 
RANGE UbiquitoTis, 
NOTE This species occurs thro\2ghout Africa and the islands in 

the nominate race; only one other race has been described 

(ssp. beanetti ]>ixey,l898) and it occurs on the island 

of Socotra. 



(34) PAPILIO DEMOLEUS Linnaevia (Syat.Nat.Bd.lO) 1758. 
RANGE India and Arabia. 



(35) PAPILIO MECHOWI Dewita (P1.6,flg.l) 

Dewitz (Berl.Ent.Zeitschr.,25,p.^6) I88I. 

RANGE Forest region siirrounding the Congo basin; Angola, 

southern and eastern Congo, S. Sudan, Hbangi—ShariyCamer 00ns 
and Uganda. In the lower and denser forests of the Congo 
it is replaced by P.gallienus Distant, with which it has 
been confused. 

Ssp. mechowi Dewitz. 
DESCRIPTION Large, tail-less. Hw sharply auagled at vein 4; a 



21 

contlnxious pala yellow laedian band in iaif broken into 
large internervular spot» in fw. A series of large y 
prominent yellow apota at margin of bw« o has a broader 
yellow band. 

HAITCffi The specific range, excluding eastern and central Ugamda. 

RECORDS nr.Ugamda t B»aiaba valley (Tcaro), Port Portaa. 

Sap, irttitnalli Feave (FoT.Zool,ll,p.S42) 1904. 
BESCRIFFI017 Wider median band and larger marginal spots than in 

the nominate race. 
R£CORI>S Uganda t Budongo forest ,liabir a foreat ( Jinja} yEaapala, 

Entebbe. 



(56) PAPILIO GALLIENIJS I>i8tant(Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond.l879,P-649)» 
RAJ7GS Figeria to the Congo. 

(i7) PAPILIO ZEUrOBinS (kjdart CBnc.Meth.)l8l9. 
RAHGE West coaat, from Sierra Leone to Angola. 

(38) PAPILIO MECHOWIUJUS Dewitz(Ettt.Fachr.ll,p.305) I885. 
EANG^ Congo and Angola. 

(39) PAPILIO ZEBTOBIA Pfebriciua (P1.6,fig.2) 
Patoiciua (Syst.Ent.p503) 1175. 

DESCRIPTI0I7 Tail-lesA) black with a very broad white median band; 

in the ^ the median band iiaiially invades the discoidal 

cell of the fw. 
BAKQE Foresta from Sieonra Leone to the Congo suid Uganda. 
RECORDS Uganda lEayonza (Kigeai), Kibale forest (Toro), B?ramba(Toro), 

Piart Portskl. 



(40) PAPILIO MDROincUS Ward (Ent.M.Mag.ll,p.305) I87I. 
SAirSE Camaroona. 

(41) PAPILIO CIKORTA P^brioiua (P1.8,figa.3 &^ 6) 
B^bricius (Bnt.Syat.,3.p.37) 1793. 

BAHQE ^om Sierra Leone to Angola, the Congo, Uganda and W.Kenya; 
represented in Ethiopia by sap. amoldi Paul ton. A forest 
species. 



22 

Ssp. cynorta Pahricius. 
DESCRIPTION or black with a broad white median band; outer edge 
of band straight er thstn in P.zenobia, The j mimics 
several forms of Bematistes epaea Crauner (Acraeidae), 
^ f « bo i sduva 1 1 iana Westwood has dark sireas nearly bxaok 
and the light streas white; rsire in E.Africa. 
9 f . lavochrea Le Cerf has dark areas dau?k brown, pale 
aureas of fw white, pale band of hw ochreous, with distal 
margin ill-defined. 

J f . ochrospila Le Cerf: As above, but all pale areas 
ochreous yellow, 

9 f , pec\iliaris Heave: All pale markings very reduced; the 
commonest form in East Africa. 

In ssp, simoldi Poulton from Ethiopia the 9 is a mimic 
of Amauris niaviua L. (Danaidae), All the $ forms of 
cynorta may be separated from the 5 ^ of P. dardanus Brown 
by the presence of a truncated orsuige brown basal area 
on the hw below. This basal sirea is present in both seies 
of all the species of the mechowi, cynorta, echerioides , 
sjbstedti group. 
RANGE The specific range, excluding Ethiopia, 
RECORDS Uganda : Katera, Bwamba, Kibale forest, Kayonza, Tororo, 
Kalinzu, Kampala, Entebbe, Jinja, 

(42) PAPILIO PLAGIATUS Aurivillius (Ent.Tidskr.l9,p.l83) I895. 
RANGE Gamer 00ns to North Congo, 

(43) PAPILIO ECHERIOIDES Trimen(Pl.T.figs.l & 4) 
Trimen (Tr'ans.Ent,Soc.Lond,p,72} I868, 

RANGE Forests from Natal to Rhodesia, Nyasaland, East Africa 
and Ethiopia, 

Ssp, echerioides "Primen, 

DESCRIPTION CP similaor t& cynorta , but the median band, which is 
very pale yellow, tapers more strongly towards the apez. 
The pale spot in area 6 of the fw is always present 
(usually absent in cynorta ) , The 9 is a mimic of Amaioris 
echeria Stoll suid of A, albintaculata Butler (Danaidae), 
The fw is black with white spots, the hw black with a 
large pale ochreous discal area and white submarginal 
spots. 

RANGE South Africa to Nyasaleind (excluding S.Rhodesia). 
E.Tatnganyika and E.Kenya, 

RECORDS Kenya ; Meru, Nairobi , Chyulu Hills,Emali,Teita, (East of 
Rift only). 



23 
Tanganyika ;Kim-boza,Turiani,Mosb.itTengeru«Ainani,Songea. 

(44) PAPILIO JACKSOHI E. Sharpe (P1.7,^xgs. 2 & 5) 
E.Sharpe (Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. l891,p,l88). 

RANGE Montane forests in Kenya, Uganda and E, Congo. 

Ssp, jacksoni E. Sharps 
DESCRIPTION 6 as in asp, echerioides , but black more sooty, median 

band narrower, reduced to very well separated spots in fw, 

white with faint ochreous tinge, 9 as in echerioides, but 

white apical spot does not touch the margin; white spots in 

hw in both sexes well inside margin. 
RANGE Montane forests in Kenya and East Uganda. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Elgon, Cherangani, Kakamega, Nairobi, Thomson's falls, 

Lugari, Nyeri, Meru, Uplands, 

Uganda i Mbale, 

Ssp. ruandana Le Cerf (Bixll.Hill Mu3.1,3,p.393) 1924. 
DESCRIPTION Larger than the nominate race, light markings pure 

white in d". 
RANGE E.Congo and Kigezi district of Uganda. 
RECORDS Mafuga forest, Kigazi. 

(45) PAPILIO PULLEBORNI Karsch (P1.8,fig8. 1 & 4) 
Karsch (Ent.Nachr.26,p.353) 1900. 

DESCRIPTION 3 : Deep black, median band pure white, very narrow 

in fw, very wide in hw, 

J similar to other species of the group, but white spots 

of hw large and placed at the margin. 
RANGE Montane forests in Tanganyika. 
RECORDS Poroto Mts. (Mbeya) jMt.Rungwe (Mbeya) ,Muf indi,Mbisi forest, 

(Ufipa), UliJguru Mts. 

(46) PAPILIO SJOSTEDTI Aurivillius (P1.8,figs 21 &5) 
Aurivillius (Seitz,Macrolep.l3,P.15j I908. 

RANGE Montane forest in N.Tanganyika. 

Sap. ajbstedti Aurivilliua 

DESCRIPTION ^ very similar to above, but white band very narrow 

in both wings. ^ similar to above, but ochreous discal area 
of hw much smaller. Both sexes may be distinguished from all 
other species of the group by the very much darker uns,. 

RANGE Slopes of Mt, Meru, between 7000 and 90OO ft. 



24 

Ssp. atavus Le Cerf (Bull.SocEnt.Pr. ,p.336) 1912. 
DESCRIPTION Median band of hw wider than in nominate race. 
RANGE Slopes of Kilimanjaro, between 7000 and 9000 ft.. 

(47) PAPILIO ZOEOASTRBS Bruce (Pl.7,figs 3 & 6) 
Druce (Ent.M.Mag.l4,p.226) I878. 

RANGE Forests in the Camaroons, Fernando Fo, Congo, Angola, 
S.Siidan and East Africa. 

Ssp. zoroastres Druce. 
RANGE Cameroons. 

Ssp. joiceyi Gabriel (Entomologist, 78fP. 152) 1945* 

DESCRIPTION Smaller than two previous species. (? has a pure white 
median band and can be sepaorated from all other species 
of the group by the presence of a white spot in the cell 
of the fw, and an extra elongated white spot in area 6 
of fw. ^ : ochreous discal area of hw smaller than in all 
ather species of the group. 

RANGE S.E.Sudan, E.Congo,N.W.Tanganyika, Uganda, W.Kenya, 

RECORDS Kenya : Kakamega, Kaimosi, Elgon , Tiriki. 
Uganda ; All forest areas. 
Tamganyika ; Biokoba, Ukerewe island. 

NOTE P. zoroastres joiceyi was described from the Sudan, while 
P. zoroastres homeyeri Plotz (Stett.E.Z,41tP«306, l88o) 
was described from Angola; despite the fact that the 
female of joiceyi was described from Uganda, the 
E. African race appeeirs to be intermediate between 
homeyeri and joiceyi. 



Genus ATROPHANEURA Reakirt. 



(48) ATROPHANEURA ANTENOR Drur-y (lll.Eiot.Ins.2,p.4) 1773. 
Range Madagascar. 



25 
Qentis GEAPHIUM Scopoli. 

Key to tlie East African species of G-raphium. 

— Vein. 4 of hw prolonged into a long narrow tail •..,».,,,,, 12-23 

— Hw without tail,.,,,.,.,,,..,.,,.,»,,,,,, ,.,.,.,.,,,,,,., 1-11 



Ups red or tarown with, hlack markings... •.».., »......•.. 

• ••.. •..••....•.•... (53) ridleyanus d ^ 

Up 3 very dark hrown with pale olive green or creamy 
markings; uns bright coppery with conspiaooua black 
spots in hw.. ................ (56) latreillianua S o 



3 Hps black with very pale blue msorkings................. 

(72} leonidas 6 9 

4 Ups brown and pale ochreous yellaw;uns never bright 
coppery. 5->6 



3 Light markings of fw arranged in a wide band........... 

................................... (58) ucalegon 6 ^ 



6 Light markings of fw not arranged in a wide band....... 

(64) almansor 6 ^ 

7 Ups white and black , 8-11 

8 Uns white with bright ochreous markings and a large 
crimson area at base of both wings. .................... 10—11 

9 Ho ochreous markings below; traces of dull red at 
base of wings.... (70) philonoe 6 9 

10 Sides of abdomen white and orange with a prominent 
black vertical line on each segment. (51) taboranus 6 9 

11 Sides of abdomen orange without black vertical lines... 
(52) pylades d 9 

12 Ups black with green markings. ....... .................. 14-21 

13 Ups black with white or very pale yellow markings...... 22-23 

14 No green disoal apota on hw above, except in area 2.... 1^-16 



26 

15 Gtraen laars in cell of fw distinct and reaching lower 
edge of cell... •.... (76) colonna 6 9 

16 Green laara in cell of fw narrow and ill-defined, 

not reaching lower edge of cell..... (75) gudenuai 6 9 

17 Qreen diacal apota preaent in areaa 4f5 ^^d 6 of hw.... 18-21 

18 Qreen hara of fw atraight 20-21 

19 Green bars in fw cell S shaped....... (81) an then a 6 9 

20 Green discal apots in 4^5 *^^ 6 af hw contigtioua 

azid in line... ...................... (79) policenes 6 9 

21 Green discal spots in 4y5 sJ^d 6 of hw otrt of line 

and not contiguous..... ...... .....(77) polistratus 6 9 

22 Pw cell above black., marked with 4 light cross-hara. . . . . 
................................... (83) porthaon 6 9 



23 Fw cell above black without light markings 

(73) kirbyi d9 



(49) GRAPHIUM ENBOCHUS Boisduval (Spec.Gen.Lep.l,p.243)l836. 
RAITGE Uadagascar. 

(50) GSIPHITM MDRAiriA Angas (Kafirs in.t,30) I849. 
RAITGE South Africa, S.Rhodesia, Ovamboland. 

(51) OaAPHITJM TABORAKUS Oberthur (P1.9,figs.l & 4) 
Oherthur (Ann.Soc.Ent.Pranca (6), 6 Bull., p. II4) 1886, 

RAUGE Savana from Angola suid Ovamboland to Katanga,17.Bhodeaia, 
Kyasaland and. Tangsuoyika. 

Ssp. taboranus Obarthur. 
DESCSIPTIOir Stoall, tail -less, black with white markings above, 
with an orajiga spot at tornua of hw. The 9 has all white 
markings much reduced, Uns: Base of both wings crimson, 
apical half of fw and margin of hw bright ochreoua marked 
with black and white. 



27 

RANGE E. Katanga, N.Hh.odesia, Nyasaland, and Tangsuiyika, 
RECORDS Tajiganyika tTabora, Fwamho, Morogoro, Mbozi, Abercorn 

(N.Rkodesia, ) 
NOTE G. tabor-anus acb.afgotachi Niepelt(lnt,Ent,Zeitschr.21,p.53) 
1927 from Ovamboland and Angola occvtrs as an occasional 
dry season form suaongst the nominate race in Katanga. 
It is smaller and whiter than the typical form and is very 
similar to the South African G,morania Angas, with i4iich 
it has often been confused. There is no doubt however, that 
Q,morania and G»taboranus are specifically distinct, 
(See Berger, Ann,Mus,Congo Beige (3),8,l,p.58,1950). 



(52) GRAPHIUM PYLADES Pabricius (Pl. 9, figs. 2 & 5) 
Pabricius (Ent.Syst,3,l,p.34) 1793. 

RANGE A species of aavana and bush country, common throughout 
most of Africa, excluding Madagascar and the islands, 

Ssp, angolanua Qoeze (Entom,Beytr,31 :87) 1779» 
DESCRIPTIOIT Very similar to G,taboranus, from which it can be 

separated by the following chstractersj sides of abdomen 

bright ochreoxia yellow in angolanus , black and white in 

tabor anus . Seies alike. 
RANGE Natal to Angola auid the S.Congo in the west, to Rhodesia, 

Nyasaland,Mozambiq,ue, Tanganyika and E.Kenya in the east. 
RECORDS Kenya t All the eastern areas aa fax- inland as Thika and 

Nairobi, 

Tanganyika ; Throughout, with the exception of the extreme 

north-west. 

Sap, pylades Pabricius, 
DESCRIPTION White areas better developed than in angolanus. 

White spots in cell and area 4 of fw fused with white 

discal airea. Sexes alike. 
RANGE Senegal to N.Congo, Sudan, Ugauida and W. Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Cherangani, Kitale, Lvigari, Kisumu, 

Uganda ; Open country everywhere, except on high moiontains 

and in desert areas. 

Tanganyika ; Probably in the extreme north-west, 

(53) GRAPHIUM RIDLEYANUS White (Pl. 10, fig. 5) 
White (JLnn.Nat.Hist,12,p,262) I843, 

DESCRIPTION Tail-lesa, bright red with black markings, $ similar, 
but more rounded, sometimes dusky brown, A mimic of several 



28 

large species af the genus Acraea. 
HANGE Forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo, Angola, and Ugaaida. 
RECOHBS Uganda: KskLinzu forest (Ankola), Uuhende, Bwamha. 

(54) GRAPHIUM TTODERAJEUS Pahricius CBnt.Syat.3,l,P.35) 1793. 
RAITGE Sierra Leone to the Congo. 

(55) GRAFHITJM CIRiroS Boisduval (Gen.Spec.Lep.l,p.239) I836. 
HAFGE Madagascar. 

(5^) ORAPHIIM LATREILLIAmJS Godart (P1.10,fig.4) 
Godart (Enc.Meth«9,p.44) I819. 

HAI7GS Forests from Sierra Laone to Angola, the Congo suid 
W.Uganda. 

Sap. latr eill iantis Godart. 
R&SGK West Africa. 

Ssp. theorini Aurivillius (Ent.Tidskr.2,p.45) I88I. 

DESCRIPTIOir A largo, tail-less species. Black with pale olive 
green maurkinga. The 9 ^ which is very rsore, has smaller 
spots, pale cream instead of green. Both sexes can he 
separated from other species of the group by the 
beautiful metallic coppery colour of the uns, 

HAITGE Caoeroons to Angola, the Congo and Ugsmda. 

RECORDS W.Uganda t Bvamba valley (Toro). 

(57) GRAPHIUM HACHEI Dewitz (Berl.Ent.Zeitschr.25,p.286)l88l. 
HAITGE Cameroons to the Congo and Angola. 

(58) GRAPHIUM UOALEGOl? Hewitson fP1.10,fig.l) 
Hewitson (Exot.Butt.Pap.t.7; l8^5« 

RANGE Forests from ITigoria to the Congo and Uganda. 

Sap. ucalegon Hewitaoo. 
RAITGE 17igeria,Cameroona, Gaboon, W.Congo,IT.W. Angola. 

Ssp. schoutedeni Berger (A]an.Mus. Congo Belgo(3)8,lrP.73) 

1950. 
DESCRIPTION Smaller and more rotinded than above. Brown with 

psJ.e ochreoxis yellow markings strranged in a continuous 



29 

band in fw. Sexes alike. 
RANGE Central and East Congo to W.Uganda. 
RECORDS W.Uganda ; Bwamba, Port Portal-lCbarara road (Toro), 

(59) ORAPHIUM WEBERI Holland (Ann.Camegie Mus.ll,p.l4) l^ll, 
RAITQE Csuaeroons. 



(60) GSAPHIUM AURIGER Butler (Ent,M.Mag.l3,p.57) I89O. 
RAETGE Gaboon. 



(61) GRAPHIUM SniONI Aurivilliua (Rhop.Aath.p.485) I898. 
RANGE Cameroons to Congo. 



(62) GRAPHIUM UCALEGONIDES Staudinger (Eiot.Schmett.ljp.lO) 

1884. 
RANGE Ghana to Cameroons, Congo and Angola. 



(63) GRAPHIUM PULLERI Grose-Smith (Bnt.MJfag.l9,p. 234)1883. 
RANGE Cameroons. 



(64) GRAPHIUM ALMANSOR Honrath (P1.10,fig.2) 
Honrath (Berl.E.Z.28,p.210) I884. 

RANGE Forests from French Guinea to the Congo, S.Sudan^Angola, 
Uganda, W.Kenya and Ethiopia. 

Sap. ailmansor Honrath. 
RANGE Angola, Katanga, N.Rhodesia. 

Ssp. vigemda Lathy (Trans, Ent.Soc.Lond. 1906,p.9) 
DESCRIPTION A wnall dark brown species with pale ochreous yellow 

markings J light markings not arranged in a band, as in 

G. uealegon. Sexes alike. 
RANGE Uganda, N.W.Tanganyika, W.Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Kakamega. 

Uganda iTororo, Mawakota,Bugalla (Sesse islands) ,Kayonza, 

Kalinzu, Bwamba. 

Tangauiyika t Bukoba, Muleba. 
NOTE Specimens from Kayonza amd Bwamba lack the submarginal 

patle spots in hw and may constitute a separate race. 



30 

(65) GEAPHIUM ODIir Strand (Wien Eat.Ziet.,29:l,p.30) I9IO, 
RAB'GE Caineroons to the Congo. 

(^0 GRAPHITM OLBRECHTSI Berger (Ann.Mua. Congo Belge(3)8,l,p.85) 

1950. 
RAITGE Congo. 

(67) GRAPHIUM AURI7ILLIUSI Seeldrayers(Ann.Soc.Ent .Beige 40, 

p. 499) 1896. 
HAKGE Congo. 

(68) GRAPHIUM AGAMEDES Weatwood (Ann.Mag.F.H.9,p.38) I842. 
RANGE Ghana to Congo, 

(69) GRAPHIUM ADAMASTOR Boisduval (Gen.Speo.Lep.l,p.37l) I836. 
RANGE West Africa to Congo. 

(70) GRAPHIUM PHILONOE Ward (P1.9,fig.3) 
Ward (Ent.M.Mag,10,p.l52) 1873. 

RANGE Wooded areas and riverine forest on the coast of Kenya 

and Tangsuiyika, in the S. Sudan, S. W.Ethiopia and N.Uganda. 

Ssp. philonoe Ward. 
DESCRIPTION White with black markings j may he separated from 

py lades and from tabor anus by the absence of the crimson 

sotd ochreous mairkinga below. Sexes alike. 
RANGE Coast of Kenya and Tanganyika. 
RECORDS Kenya » Witu,Kilifi,Diani,aaai,Kwale,Mtwapa,Mrima Hill, 

Meru (?), 

Tangamyika ; Amani,Kimboza,P\2gu Hill (Dar es Salaam). 

Ssp. whalleyi Talbot (BiQl.Hill Mus.3,p.72) 1929- 
DESCRIPTION Inner margin of fw black, not white, as in philonoe j 

subfflarginal white spots laorger in both wings. 
RANGE Sudaui, S.W.Ethiopia, N.Uganda. 
RECORDS Uganda ; West Suk. 

(71) GRAPHIUM LEVASSORI Oberthxir (Et.d»Ent.l3,p.lO) I88I. 
RANGE Comoro Islands. 



31 

(72) GRAPHIUM LEONIDAS Pabrioius (P1.9,fig.6) 
Pabricixia CEnt.Syst.3,l,p.35) 1793- 

Ssp. leonidas Fatoicius, 

DESCRIPTIOir Black, with, very pale greenish, hlue markings; i+ 

appears to he a mimic of Tiriimala limniaco petiverana Dhl. 
& Hew. (Sanaidae). 

BANGK A very common species throioghout continental Africa. A 
number of distinct forms have been named and some have 
"been given subspecif io status by some authors. However, 
in view of the continttous distribution of this species 
and its variability, no real subspecies can be recognised 
on the continent; there are two well maurked races 
inhabiting the islands of Flrincipe and Sao Thome, in the 
Q\ilf of Guinea. 

BECOHDS East Africa : ITbiquitoTxs, except in high mountains and 
desert atreas. 



(73) GRAPHIUM KISBYI Hewitson (P1.10,fig.3) 
Hewitson (Ent.M.Mag.9,p.l46) 1872. 

DESCRIPTIOF Black, with a narrow, straight, white median band. 

Tails long and tipped with white. Sexes alike. 
RAITGE Coastal forests in Kenya and Tanganyika. 
RECORDS Kenya ; Kilifi, Mtwapa, Diani, Kwale. 

Tangsmyika ; Turiami forest, Kimboza forest (Morogoro), 

Usambara. 
NOTE Form ottonis Aurivillius (Shop.Aeth.p. 492, I898) , described 

from the XTsambsLra Mts. , in Tanganyika, has a pale green 

median band. Though treated as a race by some authors, it 

should be regarded as a varietal form, as it appears to 

fly with the nominate race. 

(74) GRAPHIUM ILLTRIS Hewitson (Ent.M.Mag.9,p.l4S) I872. 
RANGE West Africa to the Congo. 

(75) GRAPHIUM GUDEmJSI Rebel (P1.10,f ig.6) 
Rebel (Ann.Hofmu3.Wien.24,p.409) 1911^ 

DESCRIPTION Black, with wide, straight green median band; in the 
apical half of the fw the green band breaks up into 
internervular spots. 

RANGE Montane forest in Ruanda Urundi, the B.Congo and the 
Kigezi district of Uganda; rare. 



32 



SECORDS Uganda : Kayonza forest (Kigeai), 



(76) CaiAPHIUM COLOHUA Ward (Pl.ll,f ig.l) 
lard (Ent,M.Mag.lO,p.l5l) l873. 

DESCHIPTIOlf Black, with, very narrow green markings, Kb green spots 
in areas 3)4»5 of hw; 2 prominent crimson spots near 
torniis of hw. Discal spots in areas 6 and 7 of hw absent. 
Sexes alike. 
lAUGE Coastal forests from South Africa to Kenya, 
RECORDS Kenya t Thika, Kihweai, Meru, Malindi, Kilifi, Kwale,Diani, 
Mtwapa, 
Tangamyika t Amani, Itorogoro, 

(77) GRAPHIUM POLISTSATUS Grose-Smith (Pl.ll,f ig,2) 
Orose-Smith (Ann.Mag,jr,H.(6) 3,P.12l) I889. 

DESCEIPTIOTT Similar to above, but green stripes and spots broader 
auid more niamerous and present in areas 3i4> and 3 of hw. 
Discal spots in 6 and 7 of hw asiall and much nearer base 
than spots in 3)4]> a^nd 5; 1^0 crimson spots at tornus, Sexes 
alike. 

RANGE Forests of eastern Africa, from Delagoa Bay to Hyasaland 
Tanganyika, and E. Kenya, 

RECORDS Kenya : Diani, Kwale, Kilifi, Mrima Hill. 
"Pangainyika ; Amani, Morogoro, 

(78) ORAPHIUM ITEGRESCEirS Eimer(Artb,bei d,Schm,l,p.233) I889. 
RANGE Cameroons to the Congo, 



(79) ORAPHITjM POLICENES Cramer (Pl,ll,fig.5) 
Cramer (Pap,Exot.l,p.6l) 1775. 

DESCRIPTIOF Green markings broader and brighter than in poliatratus 
crimson spots at tornus of hw ustially present, Discal 
spots of hw larger and placed in an evenly curved line, 
Qreen bars in cell of fw, straight, as in 3 proceeding 
species. Sexes alike. 

Forested areas throughout continental Africa. 
East Africa: All forest areas below 6OOO ft. 



RANGE 
RECORDS 
NOTE 1 



Form l axarentia Le Cerf 1924r with more iridescent grey 
on the uns and less black than in the typical form, from 
S.Tanganyika and Natal, has been treated by some authors 



33 

as a distinct race; however, as the distribution of the 
species is virtually continuous and both forms occur 
throughout its range, no subspeciation can be recognised. 
NOTE II Specimens from Uganda are usually larger than coastal ones. 

(80) GRAPHIUM jmiODI Trimen (Trans Ent.Soc.Lond.l893,p.l38). 
RANGE Mo zaiab i q,ue , 

(81) GRAPHIUM ANTHEUS Cramer (Pl.ll,f ig.4) 
Cramer (Pap.Exot.3,p.7l) 17T9. 

DESCRIPTION Very similar to policenes> but larger, tails shorter 

and more cxirved. Green bars in cell of fw S shaped, sexes 

al ike . 
RANGE Very common; wooded areas throughout most of continental 

Africa, 
RECORDS E, Africa : Wooded areas below 5000ft, Very common at the 

coast and in Uganda, Uganda specimens are usually larger 

than coastal ones, 
NOTE I Several forms and aberrations have been described: 

evombaroides Eimer, utuba Hampson, nyassae Butler, 

lurlinus Butler and mercutius Smith & Kirby. No true 

subspecies can be recognised, 
NOTE II G,antheus has been treated as a subspecies of Q.evombar 

Bsd, by some authors. It must be emphasised that evombar 

is a very distinct species occviring in Madagascar only, 

(82) GRAPHIUM EVOMBAR Boisduval (Spec, Gen. Lep,l,p, 254) I836, 
RANGE Madagascar, 

(83) GRAPHIUM PORTHAON Hewitson (Pl,ll,f ig,3) 
Hewitson (Exot,Butt.Pap,t.7) I865, 

DESCRIPTION Smaller than antheus. All light markings creamy 

white, not green. Tails long and straight; light markings 

in fw cell S shaped, sexes alike, 
RANGE Wooded areas from the Transvaal and Mozambique to Rhodesia, 

Nyasaland, Tangajiyika,and the coastal areas of Kenya. 
RECORDS Kenya ; All coastal forests, 

Tanganyika : All well wooded areas below 50OO ft., 

excluding the north— west. 




PLATE I 
I.P.antimachua cf 



2 P. rex rex d 3 P*thuraui tf 






PLATE 2 

I P.dardamia dardanua S 2 P.d.polytropims 9 f.lam'bomi 

3 P.d.polytrophus f, o hippo coono ides 4 P»d,polytrophua 5 f.cenea 

3 P.d.dardanus ^ f.planemoides 






PLATE 3 

1 Ponobilis nobilis S 2 P.phorcas ansorgei 6 3 P.p.ansopgei 

5 f.thersandroides 4 P.tnackinnoni mackinnoni d 5 P.leucotaenia (f 




PLATE 4 

I P.nireua lyaeus 6 2 P.sosia J 3 P.hornimani S 4 P.'b.bromius cf 

5 P.brontes brontas <? 6 P. char opus juventua <S 







PLATE 5 

1 P.loriaieri crocea cf 

3 P»c. constantinus cT 



2 P.O. ophidicephalua cf 
4 P.d. dsmodocus tf 






PLATE 6 

I P.mechowi mechowi c? 

3 P.pelodorus vesper c? 



2 P.zenobia cf 
4 P.li,he3peru3 d* 





PLATE 7 

I P,e»echerioid8s 6 2V 

4 P.e.echerioides q 5 P 



Vj.jacksoni (? 3 P.aoroaatres joioayi 5 
'.jtjackaoni ^ 6 P.zoroastrea joiceyi p 





PLATE 8 

I P.fullaborni 6 

4 P.fullelaorni 9 



2 P,3.sjostedti <f 
5 P.s.sjoatedti j 



3 P.cynorta d* 

6 P.cynorta j f.lavochrea 






PLATE 9 

I Qtt.talsoraims 6 

4 Q»t.tabaranus ^ 



2 G.pyladas angoIauuB S 
5 Q*pylad9s pylades tf 6 



3 G.p.philonoa ^ 
Q»l.leonld.as. S 




PLATE 10 

I G.ucalegon schoutedeni d 2 G.altnansor Uganda cJ 3 G»kirbyi tj 

4 G.latreillianua theorini d" 5 G.ridleyianiis d* 6 G.^denusi 6 








PLATE II 

I G.colonna 6 

4 G.antheus d 



2 G.polistratus t? 
5 G.policenes <f 



3 G.porthaon 6